European Automotive Industry
Volkswagen Group, Daimler Benz, Opel and Rover was among first companies introducing CE in Europe.
In 1987 Volkswagen decided to reorganize all the systems based on CE Mixed Teams (R&D, Manufacturing, Purchasing, Finance, Sales) and spread the quality control department among other units; BMW emphasised the R&D component in multidisciplinary team.
Rover halved the development time of automobiles (i.e. Discovery developed in just 27 months).